Surveys of the topography of the land surface using satellite constellations for accurate positioning, total station for sites shaded by trees or buildings or traditional leveling for channel cross sections and structures.
Surveys of river channels, reservoirs and lakes using Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP). Instrument floats on the water surface and measures the profile of water depth, velocity profile and geographical position.
Surveys of peat depth and condition (level of decay) using peat corers, probes and global positioning system (GPS). Data used to determine volumes of peat present, amounts to be excavated, instability of deposits and hydrological controls.
Surveys of river networks in catchments to determine the main sediment sources, transport mechanisms and deposition sites. Features surveyed as well as sediment particle measurements to determine the fluvial and geomorphological processes.
Surveys of catchment storage, runoff and river flow processes to relate to the measured hydrological regime. Spatial analysis of results to show the processes contributing to flooding and landslides and tributary watercourses which require remediation.
Surveys of hydrological catchments to bring together the physical aspects with the hydrological regimes and artificial influences. GIS analysis enables the effectiveness of natural flood management to be quantified and to concentrate on key sites.